JOURNAL OF ARTS AND HUMANITIES <p><strong><em>Journal of Arts and Humanities</em></strong> is a peer reviewed interdisciplinary journal that publishes empirical and theoretical research papers in the Arts and humanities such as Geography, Educational Research, language and literature, economic management, Anthropology, Law, Religious Studies, Psychology, Social Work, Sociology, History, Philosophy, Library Studies, Performing and visual Arts, Communication and development, information science Linguistics, Museum Studies and other areas in the arts and humanities. In addition to publishing papers that focus on a single discipline, <strong><em>Journal of Arts and Humanities</em></strong> solicits interdisciplinary and multi-disciplinary research which integrates and cuts across various disciplines, such as Digi-linquistics, Literature and Philosophy, Language and Communication studies; Educational Psychology, archaeological History, economic History in a meaningful and productive way. In this regard, the journal encourages multi-disciplinary authorship that fosters novel ideas and most importantly, encourages critical analysis. Each article in this journal is evaluated on its own scholarly merit and research integrity, and our expert academic editors take an objective and constructive approach to rigorous double blind review.</p> en-US <div class="page"> <p style="text-align: justify;">All articles published in the <strong>Journal of Arts and Humanities</strong> are fully open access: immediately freely available to read, download and share. Articles are published under the terms of a Creative Commons <span class="cc-license-title">Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International</span> <span class="cc-license-identifier">(CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) </span><a href="">Creative Commons license</a> which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.</p> <div class="row" style="text-align: justify;"> <div class="row"> </div> </div> </div> (Prof. Canute A. Ngwa) (Dr. David Toh Kusi) Sat, 31 Dec 2022 15:33:55 +0000 OJS 60 Interrogating the Imperial Conscience: Waugh and Greene’s Anti-Colonial Dispositions <p>Western imperialism emerges as one of the central discourses within the broad thematic designs of Evelyn Waugh’s <em>Black Mischief</em> and Graham Greene’s <em>The Heart of the Matter</em>. This paper reviews the colonial contexts of the two novels, by interrogating the representations of Western imperialism, its ethical ramifications on the one hand, and the predicament of the African people and their cultures subjugated by imperialism, on the other hand. From the increasingly secular condition of the English society, which Waugh and Greene associate with decay and disintegration resulting from the non-adherence to the dogmatic nooses of civilisation, it could be discerned that Waugh and Greene are hesitant to subscribe to the furtherance of Western imperialist agenda. Though important differences characterise their thinking as novelists, there is a significant affiliation in their points of view with regard to imperialism. In other words, there is perceptible evidence that both novelists consider Western Civilisation as much barbaric as the African context to which all imaginable transgressions are ascribed. Theoretically, the essay exploits aspects of New Historicism, the Psychoanalytic Criticism and the Postcolonial Theory in its analysis in order to avoid the vested theoretical approach that spurred imperialism. It concludes that even in the height of modernism, Waugh and Greene saw something positive in the primitive culture. They do not really affirm the metropolis as the source of universal and plausible values to which every other place should aspire. It is in this regard that their anti-colonial dispositions find expression in the novels studied here. </p> Edward Utonayugho, TENNU MBUH MBUH Copyright (c) 2022 Edward Utonayugho, TENNU MBUH MBUH Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Combating Covid-19 through Museum Exhibitions in Cameroon <p>The global pandemic caused by the dreaded <em>Corona virus</em> (Covid-19) first hit Africa in December 2019 and then pounced on the rest of the continent by March 2020. Within weeks, governments trembled and virtually every public service was grounded. Soon, the entire continent was in panic and confinement. The butchery was comparable to none in human history. In Cameroon, where face masks were before now, a luxury; where government policy towards pandemics remained reactive rather than proactive; where doubt and skepticism still surrounded the existence of the virus; and where research on new brands of beer took precedence over healthcare, basic education and infrastructure, the cacophony was total. Virtually every television and radio slot carried horrifying news of the pandemic, its latest victims, traumatized medical staff, abandoned patients, mass burials, shocking images and lost hope for a vaccine. However, one sector yet to paint its picture of the pandemic in Cameroon has been that of museums. Like the Holocaust Museum in Washington DC and the Apartheid Museum in Pretoria, Cameroonian museums have the capacity to immortalize ground-breaking events, pandemics and genocidal occurrences. They could also sensitize, orientate and communicate dramatic messages to diverse audiences. The present museographic study captures the role that Cameroonian museums could play in combating this gruesome monster through visual exhibitions, sensitization and outreach programs. It answers a central question: What legacy has the corona virus left in Cameroon and how can Cameroonian museums contribute to erasing it? A blend of qualitative research, art criticism and participatory observation, analyzed on thematic and chronological parameters provided grounds for our findings. Governments the world over have learnt that however powerful they might be, we all need God to survive. Secondly, national emergency plans need to be reviewed for greater pro-activity for the pandemic to be conquered.</p> Victor BAYENA NGITIR Copyright (c) 2022 Victor BAYENA NGITIR Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Pedagogical Implications of Maternal Educational Attainment on Children’s Educational Outcomes in Cameroon <p>It is unclear how mothers affect their children’s learning at home and how the pedagogical approaches used by mothers can lead to positive outcomes for children. The purpose of this study was to provide pedagogical evidence on the effects of Cameroonian women’s level of educational attainment on children’s level of educational outcomes. The survey research design and data from the 2011 Demographic and Health Survey were used. The instrumental variable probit model was used for data analysis. The results revealed that maternal educational attainment had a significant effect on children’s educational outcomes. Mothers’ utilization of play based, song, storytelling and reading pedagogies or walking curriculum had positive implications on children’s educational outcomes. From a policy perspective, accelerating increase in women’s schooling had the potential to accelerate children’s educational outcomes in Cameroon. This was an important step to enhancing children’s cognitive growth.</p> Nubonyin Hilda Fokong Copyright (c) 2022 Nubonyin Hilda Fokong Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Linguistic Awareness of Usage in Bi-multilingual Classrooms: <p>Learners chuckle or comment ''She/ He is a Francophone/ an Anglophone'' in reaction to another’s lexical or syntactic usage, or phonological realisation; a stereotypical practice that elicits learners’ extent of language awareness. The aim of this paper therefore, is to identify and analyse some linguistic and social variables that influence language awareness in a bi-multilingual classroom, and propose strategies for improved teaching-learning and social inclusion. The objectives are to identify the variables that influence linguistic awareness of usage in a bi-multilingual classroom; analyse the extent to which these variables influence language awareness; and explore the outcomes for pedagogic and social enhancement. The dynamics of social and linguistic stereotyping are highlighted in the context of Cameroon’s bi-multilingualism, language (un)awareness and learner centred learning. The sample population comprises 43 students from two faculties and one school of The University of Bamenda. A coded open-ended questionnaire focused on the micro (linguistic) and macro (social) aspects of language awareness is administered; part self-completion and part face-to-face as an interview. The descriptive statistical method and the qualitative method are used to analyse the data. Findings prove these varieties of English include sociolects with linguistic processes such as alveolar plosives substitution for inter-dental fricatives; English rolling /r/ vs. French uvular /ɹ/; recurrence of a Cameroon Pidgin English syntactic feature in place of the English interrogative close; the <em>Wh</em> inversion in questions; literal translation, use of pejorative adjectives and adjectival phrases. Learners’ awareness of the variation triggers social and linguistic stereotyping, but there is unawareness of the negative impact of stereotyping, one of them, social exclusion. As a proposal for enhanced teaching-learning and social inclusion or tolerance in bi-multilingual classrooms, language teaching could include integrated modules of language awareness and contrastive linguistics to enhance learners’ analytical language skills and critical awareness of the social realities....</p> Kelen Ernesta Fonyuy Copyright (c) 2022 Kelen Ernesta Fonyuy Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Questioning Sisterhood Bonds and Sexual Slavery: A Reading of Patricia MCormick’s Sold (2007) <p>This paper sets out to analyse the contribution of women to sexual trafficking and the role they play in exacerbating the phenomenon as projected by Patricia McCormick in <em>Sold</em> (2007). While in some other narratives, women complain about women’s oppression and marginalisation by their male counterparts, curiously, many women in this novel contribute to the denigration of women, thus, bringing to question the unity of sisterhood. The lack of sisterhood bonds not only endangers the life and wellbeing of other girls and women but also makes things difficult for the women and other people who are struggling to stop the phenomenon of girls and women’s trafficking. So, the contribution of women to women’s trafficking and how this exacerbates the phenomenon as seen by McCormick. Feminism is used for analysis and it is found that, for women’s trafficking to be stopped or reduced to a considerable level, women should promote sisterhood and therefore, be one another’s keeper.</p> Gilda Nicheng Forbang Copyright (c) 2022 Gilda Nicheng Forbang Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Beyond Decolonisation: Insight into Africa’s Institutional Cooperation and Integration <p>With Africa’s decolonisation in the late 1950s, African states were born into a system of global interdependence. As a result, the need for cooperation and integration becomes imperative. It has been argued that despite Africa’s institutional cooperation and integration the continent has remained the least developed and integrated. This paper x-rays how Africa’s institutional cooperation has helped to facilitate Africa’s economic development. In discussing Africa’s institutional cooperation and integration, two perspectives were put into focus (1) Africa’s institutional cooperation at the global level and (2) Africa’s institutional cooperation and integration at the regional level. For a clear conceptual analysis, the paper adopts the historical and analytical research methods. It utilises primary and secondary sources of information collected from libraries, archives of multilateral agencies as well as oral interviews. For what has been done so far in this research, findings reveals that Africa’s institutional cooperation either in the global or regional level has helped African states to forge a common course of economic development. Findings have also showed that through institutional cooperation African states have been able to partner with advanced economies of world to facilitate economic development. The paper concludes that for Africa to achieve a greater measure of economic development, African leaders should be fully committed to economic development by exploiting the gains in institutional cooperation.</p> Charles Osarenomase Osarumwense, Emmanuel Toby Copyright (c) 2022 Charles Osarenomase Osarumwense, Emmanuel Toby Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Urban Flood Mapping and Vulnerability Assessment in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria <p>Most urban cities have suffered from natural disasters especially flooding whose frequency and intensity have increased due to human activities with devastating consequences on sanitation, human health, and property. This research employed the use of geographic information systems (GIS) as a tool in mapping and monitoring floods in Ilorin, Kwara State with a view to developing a flood risk map for urban management. The specific objectives include identifying flood-prone areas, assessing urbanization and land-use changes and their implications on flooding. A total of 220 copies of pre-tested questionnaires were administered and 163 retrieved to evaluate anthropogenic activities and their consequences on this phenomenon. Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data and Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI ) images for 1984, 2000, and 2015 respectively were used to generate flood, vulnerability, and land use maps. The result shows that there was a rapid increase in built-up areas from 41.642 km<sup>2 </sup>in 1984 to 167.911 km<sup>2</sup> in 2000 and subsequently to 239.49 km<sup>2</sup> in 2015. Urbanization resulted in increased paved and unpaved compacted surfaces at the expense of vegetation cover and increased surface runoff possibly leading to floods. Similarly, flood vulnerability maps were produced which classified the area into; high, medium, and low vulnerable areas. The research identified factors affecting flooding at Ilorin to include developmental activities on flood plains and land use/cover changes. Enlightenment, development control, and GIS-based flood vulnerability map for urban management were recommended as a way forward.</p> <p><em> </em></p> Martin Binde GASU, Samuel YAKUBU, Robert Njilla, Jezreal Amaechi CHARANCHI Copyright (c) 2022 Martin Binde GASU, Samuel YAKUBU, Robert Njilla, Jezreal Amaechi CHARANCHI Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Party Politics and Conflicting Views of Politicians on British Southern Cameroons Independence, 1922 – 1961 <p>This paper examines party politics in British Southern Cameroons from inception in 1922 to reunification and independence in 1961. It focuses on the ideologies and strategies of politicians, chiefs, pressure groups and political parties, as well as the inescapable role of the British and the United Nations towards the plebiscite and eventual reunification with the independent Republic of Cameroon. The paper argues that, British Southern Cameroons politicians espoused conflicting views on the political future of their territory, initially fighting for the territory’s independence as a separate political entity against association with Nigeria and reunification with French Cameroon, before being compelled by the debates at the Mamfe Conference in August 1959 to bring to the forefront their conflicting opinions on secession, association and reunification. Paradoxically, the popular option of secession and independence as a separate political entity was rejected by the United Nations. The paper concludes that despite British might and manoeuvres as a colonial master to yoke British Southern Cameroons to Nigeria, Southern Cameroonians overwhelmingly voted through a United Nations organised plebiscite on 11 February 1961 to gain independence by establishing a federation and reunifying with the then French-speaking Republic of Cameroon on 1 October 1961.</p> Emmanuel Yenkong Sobseh Copyright (c) 2022 Emmanuel Yenkong Sobseh Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 On Lexical Innovations in the Cameroon Media Landscape <p>There is a noticeable preponderance of lexical neologisms in the Cameroonian media landscape. This paper examines lexical innovations in the English of Cameroonians; emanating from audio visual and print media platforms. The study stemmed from the observation that the lexes in the mass media in Cameroon have varying creations that deviate from Standard British English paradigms. This variance is sometimes glaringly enormous that it results in mutual unintelligibility between Cameroonian and non-Cameroonian speakers of English. The Usage-Based Theory constituted a basis for the identification and analysis of innovations in comparison with standard varieties and further lexico-semantic descriptions. The study used primary data collection procedures with video and audio recordings of news broadcasts and interviews. Diverse lexical processes such as reduplication, interference, compounding, lexical extension, eponymy amongst others were identified as lexical processes used within this context. The study concludes that these innovations continue to build and extend the corpus of Cameroon English lexicology which cannot be neglected in linguistic analysis.</p> Louis MBIBEH, Randof Tayam Copyright (c) 2022 Louis MBIBEH, Randof Tayam Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Online Education in Cameroon: Learners’ Perceptions of the Effectiveness of Google Classroom as a Tool for Active Learning <p>The COVID19 pandemic has had far-reaching consequences beyond the spread of the disease itself. One of the hard-hit sectors is the education sector. However, learning has not stopped but is now taking alternative forms, one of which is online learning. The Cameroon government on its part is implementing online learning in all its institutions of learning including the universities. This study seeks to explore students’ perceptions of the effectiveness of Google Classroom as a tool of online Education. The data used for this study is made up of 1,800 responses collected using a questionnaire from 120 students (60 females and 60 males) from the University of Buea-Cameroon. The study adopted Davis’ (1985) Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) as a basic framework to explore relationships among perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness and users’ satisfaction regarding Google Classroom. In spite of some challenges like technical problems with their devices and poor internet connectivity, the major findings showed that overall students were satisfied with Google Classroom and as such it was an effective online learning/teaching tool during the period in question.</p> Divine N. Ndimofor Copyright (c) 2022 Divine N. Ndimofor Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Romantic Heresy and the Crisis of Identification in the Poetry of William Wordsworth and W. B. Yeats <p>This paper seeks to illustrate the “truth function” of Romantic literature discerned as a cyclical predictable literature which expresses the author’s essential self and thoughts. In the context of romantic theorisation in the nineteenth century, however, critics like William Hazlitt take into consideration a number of years with extrapolated characteristic features to judge and classify writers and their works. Hazlitt in his portrait of Wordsworth, for example, went so far as to say that “Wordsworth’s genius is a pure emanation of the Spirit of the Age…Had he lived in any other period of the world, he would never have been heard of” (Scott 2015). Hazlitt misrepresented the poet’s “egotistical sublime” and the “power of his imagination”.&nbsp;The argument is that in&nbsp;as much as Wordsworth and Yeats help us to understand the historical movement of Romanticism, they also transcended it considerably. The structuralist perspectives adopted for the analyses demonstrate how Romantic literature goes beyond the literary historic tags to redeploy, through language, a culture and a system which influences other epochs. The paper reveals that the term Romanticism means so many different things and its often association with isolated attributes like nature, mysticism, and estrangement, can, in recent debates, be misleading.</p> David Toh Kusi Copyright (c) 2022 David Toh Kusi Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A A pragmatic and Grammatical analyses of Captions on Taxis and Motorbikes in Bamenda <p>This study investigates the use of some pragmatic and grammatical strategies in captions on taxis and motorbikes in Bamenda. The study seeks to examine the contextual use of captions on taxis and motorbikes and to see how the sample of texts selected comply with Speech Act theory of pragmatics, to find out how captions on taxis and motorbikes in Bamenda reflect the socio-cultural experience of commuters and motorbikers and to find out why some of the captions are full with grammatical errors. The Study seeks to argue that captions on taxis and motorbikes in Bamenda reflect the socio-cultural experience of their owners. With Austin’s and Searle’s Speech Act theory, the study has made an inventory of captions on taxis and motorbikes and has found out that these captions do perform some illocutionary acts of advising, wishing, accusing, warning, promising, comforting, blessing, asking, asserting, informing, requesting, and thanking. Using Error Analysis by S. P. Corder, the researcher has made an inventory of captions on taxis and motorbikes to show that some captions do contain errors. These captions represent the socio-cultural experiences of the drivers and motorbikers that are pragmatically constructed to illustrate social inequality, greed, the greatness of God and the nature of man. Furthermore, captions on taxis and motorbikes were found to conceal information that are decodable through a pragmatic interpretation that were to be considered and were also found to contain errors. The reasons behind the errors are attributed to the social media, SMS Lingo and to the fact that the English Language in this context is used as a second language. Hence, some people or drivers and motorbikers who write captions on taxis and motorbikes in the present context do not master the rules that govern the language.</p> Peukeu Carine Kohole, Evangeline Angwa Seino Copyright (c) 2022 Peukeu Carine Kohole, Evangeline Angwa Seino Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Legitimisation Strategies in the Discourse of Political Actors of the Social Democratic Front Party (SDF) in Cameroon (1990-2020) <p>This article sets out to examine the various means by which political actors of the SDF party in Cameroon justify their actions or proposals for action. The justification is achieved through legitimisation which recruits many available linguistic mechanisms as vehicles for the propagation and justification of ideologies and actions. The work is theoretically rooted in Critical Discourse Analysis(CDA) whose relevance lies in its capacity to carry out analysis of texts within the perspective of legitimisation strategies as proposed by Van Dijk (2005), Van Leeuwen (1996,2007),Van Leeuwen and Wodak (1999) and Beetham (2013). The data for this study is made up of excerpts of discourses authored by four (04) frontline politicians of the Social Democratic Front party. The analysis of the discourses of the Party indicates that the strategies used license political actors to legitimise or justify political action through authorisation, rationalisation, moral evaluation, mythopoesis and emotions. The legitimisation structures and strategies are carried out within the context of a homogenous ideology and mission. This ideology and mission aim primarily at assigning credibility to the SDF party and then go on to amplify and justify moves that focus on deligitimising the actions and deconstructing the achievements of the CPDM party.</p> Cyprian Atemba, Carlous Muluh Nkwetisama Copyright (c) 2022 Cyprian Atemba, Carlous Muluh Nkwetisama Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Insécurité hydrique au confluent des crises dans la Région du Nord-Ouest (Bamenda) Cameroun <p>Les populations du Nord-Ouest sont confrontées à l’accès périlleux en eau potable. Elles traversent ainsi une insécurité hydrique sans précèdent et des conditions d’hygiène et de salubrité lamentables. Elles manquent de l’eau pour se laver les mains, pourtant le lavage des mains figure parmi les mesures barrières édictées par le gouvernement dans la lutte contre la maladie à coronas virus. L’accès difficile à l’eau engendre non seulement la résurgence les maladies hydriques, mais favorise aussi la propagation de la covid-19, maladie redoutable. Cet article tente de comprendre comment les populations affrontent l’accès difficile à l’eau potable en contexte triadique de crises (Hydrique, sécuritaire et sanitaire). Les données de cette étude sont issues des entretiens réalisés dans la région du Nord-Ouest Cameroun. Il ressort de cette étude que les crises affaiblissent le développement humain, économique et sanitaire des populations. La résurgence des maladies hydriques interpelle les politiques de santé publique et les stratégies de communication efficace. L’accès difficile à l’eau de bonne qualité contraint les populations à recourir à des sources douteuses qui mettent en péril leur vie et remet en cause les Objectifs du Développement Durable dans la lutte contre les maladies d’origine hydriques. Les populations vivent une résilience jamais souhaitée. </p> Peguy Ndonko Copyright (c) 2022 Peguy Ndonko Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Language Use and the Marketing Communication Strategies of Ambulant Bus Vendors: The case of the Northwest Region of Cameroon <p>This study investigates the use of Pidgin English and the linguistic communication strategies employed and the difficulties encountered by the ambulant bus vendors in the Northwest Region of Cameroon. Two questions aked are: what langage is used by ambulant bus vendors and what are some of the linguistic communication strategies used by these ambulant vendors in Bamenda? To achieve the objectives of the study, the researchers recorded on-the-bus presentations in Pidgin English by the vendors while accompanying passengers at various travel agencies to and from Bamenda. The recordings were transcribed into the English language and transformed into text for analysis. The Persuasion Theory, Textual Conceptual Functions, Framing Theory, Critical Discourse Analysis, and Content Analysis were used to analyse the data. Findings revealed that ambulant bus vendors in Bamenda use Pidgin English as a predominant language and it is very instrumental in the introduction of new products to the final consumer and as well serves as a link in the production chain between the producer and the final consumer. Thus, if they are well organized to work as company agents or representatives, they will contribute greatly to the growth of the economy and business. The study also revealed that ambulant bus vendors in Bamenda make use of linguistic communication strategies like negating, naming and describing, exemplifying and enumerating, equating and contrasting, and finally hypothesising. On the other hand, the study equally revealed that alongside linguistic communication strategies, ambulant bus vendors employ marketing communication strategies like songs, prayers, announcements, product endorsement, sex sales, product universality, allusion, and self-certification.</p> Victor Ngu Cheo, Esther Phubon Chie, Jean Marie Ngong Song Copyright (c) 2022 Victor Ngu Cheo, Esther Phubon Chie, Jean Marie Ngong Song Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000