JOURNAL OF ARTS AND HUMANITIES <p><strong><em>Journal of Arts and Humanities</em></strong> is a peer reviewed interdisciplinary journal that publishes empirical and theoretical research papers in the Arts and humanities such as Geography, Educational Research, language and literature, economic management, Anthropology, Law, Religious Studies, Psychology, Social Work, Sociology, History, Philosophy, Library Studies, Performing and visual Arts, Communication and development, information science Linguistics, Museum Studies and other areas in the arts and humanities. In addition to publishing papers that focus on a single discipline, <strong><em>Journal of Arts and Humanities</em></strong> solicits interdisciplinary and multi-disciplinary research which integrates and cuts across various disciplines, such as Digi-linquistics, Literature and Philosophy, Language and Communication studies; Educational Psychology, archaeological History, economic History in a meaningful and productive way. In this regard, the journal encourages multi-disciplinary authorship that fosters novel ideas and most importantly, encourages critical analysis. Each article in this journal is evaluated on its own scholarly merit and research integrity, and our expert academic editors take an objective and constructive approach to rigorous double blind review.</p> Faculty of Arts, The University of Bamenda en-US JOURNAL OF ARTS AND HUMANITIES 2710-3013 <div class="page"> <p style="text-align: justify;">All articles published in the <strong>Journal of Arts and Humanities</strong> are fully open access: immediately freely available to read, download and share. Articles are published under the terms of a Creative Commons <span class="cc-license-title">Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International</span> <span class="cc-license-identifier">(CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) </span><a href="">Creative Commons license</a> which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.</p> <div class="row" style="text-align: justify;"> <div class="row"> </div> </div> </div> RURBANISATION AND AGRICULTURAL DYNAMICS IN BAMBILI AND BAMBUI, NORTH WEST REGION OF CAMEROON <p>The transformational path of a rural settlement into semi-urban and urban areas in the world dates back to the Industrial Revolution. Urban expansion is one of the determinants of agrarian system dynamics. In the Bambili-Bambui area, farm sizes are becoming relatively smaller within human settlements and tend to increase towards the rural fringes. The aim of the study is to examine the impact of rurbanization on agricultural dynamics in Bambili and Bambui. This is based on the premise that there is a direct impact of rurbanization on agricultural dynamics in Bambili and Bambui area. The methodology uses historical and correlational designs, divided into two periodical trends. A random sampling technique was used to administer 200 questionnaires to the population. Findings reveal that the process of rurbanization in this area has been profoundly linked to increasing land uses and space occupation at a rate of 80%. There has been a perfect positive correlation between rurbanization and agricultural dynamics. The study concludes that rurbanization has led to a reduction in farm sizes by 75%, resulting in competing land uses that have promoted the increase in land acquisition at the peripheries of Bambili and Bambui. This has headed to land pressures that have resulted to decrease in farm sizes at the peripheral areas. The study recommends the need for land use planning and urban growth regulation for sustainable agricultural development in Bambili and Bambui in the context of contemporary decentralization in Cameroon.</p> <p><strong><em>Key words: </em></strong><strong><em>Rurbanisation</em></strong><strong><em>, agricultural dynamics, land uses, Bambili and Bambui </em></strong></p> <p><strong><em> </em></strong></p> MBANGA Lawrence AKEI Akuo Cheenuwenui Boeyeo Bailack Kevin Mbuh Copyright (c) 2022 MBANGA Lawrence AKEI, Mr Akuo Cheenuwenui Boeyeo , Mr Bailack Kevin Mbuh 2022-03-05 2022-03-05 5 1 1 25 Sammy Oke Akombi’s The Raped Amulet and the Colonial Ideology <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>Colonialism continues to affect and influence creative production in much of the ex-colonised world. Like Edward Said (1999) argues, creative works, especially the novel, have been instrumental in the representation of ideologies that affect relations between cultures and races. Our reading of Sammy Oke Akombi’s <em>The Rape Amulet </em>(2008) reveals that the novel continues to adopt the colonial ideology though set in postcolonial times. Akombi represents the African whose into coming to contact with the European is silent and erased. In this case, the ex-colonised individual remains the “other”. In this paper I argue that <em>The Rape Amulet </em>is a novel of encounter between Cameroon and Britain. Furthermore, that in this encounter, the British is represented as the master that has silenced the Cameroonian. I hinge these arguments on the views of George Lamming and Frantz Fanon who have both attempted to understand the psyche of the ex-colonised and come out with the conclusions that the idea or the myth of Europe remains enshrined in the mind-set of the ex-colonised individual.</p> Kelvin Ngong Toh Copyright (c) 2022 Kelvin Ngong Toh 2022-03-05 2022-03-05 5 1 27 40 Pliability of Female Sexual Commodification in the City of Bamenda, ca. 1922-2018 <p>The expression of sexuality is complex and varies from one society to another. It could be fashioned by different philosophies. Liberalism and conservatism, for instance, have shaped sex practices disproportionately. In areas where liberal laws proliferated, sexuality was exuded more liberally while in parts where conservative attitudes were common, sexual actions were practiced with some degree of concealment. From any vantage point, urban-oriented spaces, in spite of national legal proscriptions, usually did not command the austere traditional ethos that guarded and constrained the expression of sexuality like in conservative (usually) rural societies where sexual probity was well-regarded. The development and expansion of rural milieus into cosmopolitan settings and functions especially from the introduction of the colonial enterprise, significantly redefined the notion of sexuality. Urbanization and its correlates like migration, economic animation, and social-status construction and generally the wish to survive in the very competitive complex urban scheme, exacerbated the urge for females to defy traditional moral norms of preserving sexuality. It is in this perspective that the paper informed by primary and secondary sources and employing a qualitative-thematic analytical approach, examines the social origins and extent to which the urban construction of the city of Bamenda provided space for an informal female sex marketing economy. The paper maintains that the resilience of female sex commodification in spite of legal and public condemnation in Bamenda was a combination of less rigorous public sexual prohibition policies, limited social welfare opportunities and economic exigencies created in the city from the colonial to the post independent periods. The paper concludes that in spite of the risks, uncertainties, derogatory inferences and criminalization of the activity by the Cameroon penal code, female sex commodification strived largely as a survival strategy in the context of an urban revolution characterized by limited access to socio-economic opportunities. </p> Nixon Takor Kahjum Juliet N. Bessem Copyright (c) 2022 Nixon Takor Kahjum, Juliet N. Bessem 2022-03-05 2022-03-05 5 1 41 66 Emotional Support and the Internship Training of Nursing Students in Fako Health District of the South West Region of Cameroon <p>The internship nursing training experience provides a real-world context where nursing students can acquire clinical skills and the attitudes that are the hallmark of the nursing profession under supporting and experienced supervision. Trainees in nursing are expected to be prepared adequately for the hard-working environment, increasing patient complexity, and higher-level competencies. However, nursing students often report dissatisfaction during internship; they encounter stressors that often hamper their learning, work outcomes and even their overall wellbeing. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of emotional support on the internship training of nursing students in the Fako health district of the Southwest Region of Cameroon. The survey design with the mixed method approach was adopted for the study. A sample of 345, including 325 second, third and fourth year nursing students and 20 clinical educators were considered for the study. Data was collected quantitatively and qualitatively using questionnaires, focus group discussion guides and interviews. Data was entered using Epidataversi on 3.1 and exploratory statistics were ran to identify questionable entries, inconsistency in responses and others. Descriptive statistics were used to present distributions between and within subsets using frequency distributions, percentages and multiple response sets. Meanwhile content analyses were conducted to analyse qualitative data. Findings showed that emotional support was a necessary ingredient in internship training of student nurses. They showed that, emotional support (χ2=48.341; P=0.000) had an explanatory power of 17.3%, during internship training. It was concluded that given the high levels of challenges and stressors associated with internship in nursing training, emotional support systems should be considered as an unavoidable variable in elevating supportive, healthy and psychologically stable learning environments for nursing students during internship.</p> Joseph Lah Lo-oh Obenebob Ayukosok Copyright (c) 2022 Joseph Lah Lo-oh, Obenebob 2022-03-05 2022-03-05 5 1 67 90 Myths and Controversies of the Origins of the Misaje People: Changing Trends in Socio-Economic and Cultural Heritage <p>The massive movement of people during the 19<sup>th</sup> century in the different parts of Cameroon including Misaje was propelled by many factors. These movements and settlements in the Misaje area were predominantly effected by four ethnic groups, namely: the Hausas who claimed to be the first settlers and the recent immigrants made up of the Nchaney, Bessah and the Dumbo ethnic groups. Prior to this movement, the indigenous Hausa group who had earlier settled in Misaje were already involved in varied socio-economic activities such as trade in kolanuts, palm products, slaves, ivory and salt especially during the long distance trade between the Bamenda Grassfields communities found within the contemporary Nigeria. In the meantime, their presence within the study locale created an avenue of alternating peace and confrontations with the Hausas who claimed to be the aborigines. However, the focus of this paper is to examine the myth, controversies and polemics surrounding the origins of the indigenous ethnic groups in Misaje. It equally examines the different contested claims and debates surrounding their history and how their presence have led to overt confrontations between the Hausa, the supposed legitimate settlers on one hand, and the Bessah, Dumbo and Nchaney immigrants. Furthermore, the paper also argues that the evolutionary trends in the socio-economic and cultural mores implanted by the aborigines (Hausas) emanated from the myths and controversies of origin. It further argues that in recent times, these ethnic groups have manifested claims of supremacy over Misaje. Therefore, gleaned from both primary and secondary sources, the paper reveals that, these conflicting claims of supremacy over Misaje have acted as a fertile ground for the emergence of misunderstanding among the settlers. Concomitantly, there is need for the government in collaboration with other stake holders to mitigate the resurgence of such conflicts and encourage paecefull coexistence.</p> Kimah Comfort Sjinkwe Canute A. Ngwa Copyright (c) 2022 Kimah Comfort Sjinkwe, Canute Ngwa 2022-03-05 2022-03-05 5 1 91 112 Landscape in Derek Walcott’s Dream on Monkey Mountain <p>This paper analyses landscape in Derek Walcott’s <em>Dream on Monkey</em> <em>Mountain</em>. The paper demonstrates that landscape, which comprises trees, and sea, is very active when it comes to human existence. How does an ecological perspective give prominence to landscape peopled by miscreants, outsiders and mulattoes? With this question posed, this research, applying tenets of postcolonial ecocriticism, contends that landscape, in Walcott’s worldview, is a partner that humans, especially the colonially minded ones have neglected. Therefore, the call is for the Caribbean to reclaim their landscape and revalue it.</p> Roselyn M. Jua Copyright (c) 2022 Roselyn M. Jua 2022-03-05 2022-03-05 5 1 113 136 The NdaʔNdaʔ Noun Class System <p>This paper discusses the specificities of noun classes in Ndaʔndaʔ. Our main objective is to analyze the structure of the noun and propose a more reliable classification of the Ndaʔndaʔ nouns. The data is collected through a questionnaire, transcribed with the International Phonetic Alphabet and analyzed within the framework of structuralism (Saussure: 1916). As far as the noun structure is concerned, a thorough description of all the syllable structures and the tone patterns of the Ndaʔndaʔ name is carried out. We revised Ngantchui’s (1989) classification and proposed <strong>|o “-|</strong> and |w-| as concord prefix for class one nouns instead of <strong>|</strong><strong>o“ -|</strong> and |y-|. Her claims that tones were relevant in distinguishing classes in the language is also disproved. As for gender, four double class genders and four single-class genders have been identified. The double class genders included 1/2, 3/4, 3/6 and 5/4 and the single class genders 1, 2, 3 and 6. We also took a closer look at the relational pattern existing between the constituents of the nominal construction in terms of distribution and agreement.</p> Gueche Fotso Hugues Carlos Copyright (c) 2021 Gueche Fotso Hugues Carlos 2022-03-05 2022-03-05 5 1 137 162 Inter-Faith Relations in the Bamenda Grassland, 1900-2016: Scrutinising Rivalry, Conflicts and Intolerance <p>Religious differences have been the source of many conflicts in Africa especially in areas that harbour two or more religions that have sharp differences in beliefs and practices. Taking the case of the Bamenda Grassland, this paper takes into consideration three main religions; African Traditional Religion (ATR), Islam and Christianity. Even though Islam and Christianity are Abrahamic religions, they differ greatly in doctrine and practices. African Traditional Religion is completely of a different background. The co-existence of these religious traditions in the Bamenda Grassland demarcated its religious landscape in terms of beliefs and practices with each religion claiming to be the most genuine. Cultural, economic and political considerations played a major rule to further project the diversity between and within these religions in this area. Using primary, secondary and other sources, it was realised that the differences that existed between these three faith traditions from the pre-colonial and colonial periods were deepened in the post-independence era and resulted to physical confrontations in some areas.</p> Ngeh Samuel Azie Copyright (c) 2022 Ngeh Samuel Azie 2022-03-05 2022-03-05 5 1 163 188 Gender Representation in Migration Discourses in Cameroon <p>The passing years of the 21<sup>st</sup> century have witnessed massive migrations of citizens from developing countries to developed ones for reasons ranging from education, work, marriage, war, persecution, poverty or environmental crises. Since migration has become one of the defining global issues or concerns of the 21<sup>st</sup> Century, it has also attracted academic and non-academic interests including newspaper reporting worldwide. The main objective of this study is to identify and examine the different gender representations in migration discourses in newspapers. It seeks to attempt a multimodal discourse analysis of the way gender is portrayed with regard to migration in <em>Cameroon Tribune</em>, and <em>The Guardian Post</em> newspapers in Cameroon between August 2020 and September 2021. The data to be analysed is drawn from 30 newspaper issues purposively selected for the study. The corpus is from news items, commentaries and human interest stories handling issues of migration. The units of analysis are words and word groups; clauses and clause complexes; paragraphs and texts. The analysis is also couched in Van Leeuwen’s (1999/2008) modeling system within the multimodal semiotic resources which looks at colour, font style, font size for typography and language. It is expected that the findings of the study shall provide ground for justification or not for news writers to strive for gender equity as they use semiotic resources alongside language in making meaning in their reports. News reports would have to avoid under/misrepresentation of women and see the need for the promotion of the ideology of equity in gender representations. </p> Pascaline Fonghe Penn Copyright (c) 2022 Pascaline Penn Fonghe 2022-03-05 2022-03-05 5 1 189 213 Homosexuality in Edward Albee’s The Zoo Story: A Psychoanalytic Reading <p>This paper sets out to examine parent-child relationship in Edward Albee’s <em>The Zoo Story.</em> The paper is premised on the hypothesis that the absence of love between mother and son in the play under consideration leads to Jerry’s isolation and makes him become a homosexual. Sigmund Freud’s theories of the Oedipus and castration complex shall guide our analysis. The methodology adopted in this paper is a textual analysis and the points raised and discussed lead to the conclusion that Jerry’s hatred of his mother and the love of his father give rise to his homosexual cravings.</p> John Niba Ndongmanji Copyright (c) 2022 John Niba Ndongmanji 2022-03-05 2022-03-05 5 1 214 236 Role of Communication Media in Climate Variability and Change within Bamenda, North West Region, Cameroon. <p>Climate variability and change today has been an international debate issue with communities worldwide presenting awareness deficiency as far as climate change is concerned. The study seeks to assess the extent of climate variability in Bamenda, analyse the programs broadcasted about climate change, investigate the level of receptiveness from the audience and probe into other ways that the media is engaging the population apart from message dissemination in climate variability and change perspectives. A purposive sample of 33 was drawn from 22 media outlets, while climatic data were collected from the North West Regional Meteorological Service in Bamenda. Results revealed that rainfall has been decreasing while the temperature has been rising. The radio is the most popular media used in climate communication (39.4%), followed by a combination of radio/TV (15.2%), online (15.2%), print (15.2%), TV only (9.1%) and a combination of print and online (6.15). Climate change communication is plagued by inadequate personnel, non-mastery of the science, inadequate slots and poor coverage. Faced with these, the media should intensify the production, broadcast and publishing of climate change content.</p> Talom Gilbert Tanwie Suiven John Paul Tume Romaric Bongwong Tume Copyright (c) 2022 Talom Gilbert Tanwie, Suiven John Paul Tume, Romaric Bongwong Tume 2022-03-05 2022-03-05 5 1 237 254 Ecocritical Encounter in Shadrach Ambanasom’s Forest of the Gods <p>Although many scholars pessimistically agree that by far, not enough has been done to mitigate the looming environmental crisis, and that time is indeed running out, the recent years have witnessed a noteworthy change with regard to the role the humanities and arts have been assigned in these troubled times. (Bartosh and Grimmer, 2014, p.2).This increasing concern has been due to the drastic failure in human/nature relationship. Man’s activities continue to devastate the environment and ecology. Human beings seem to have the illusion that they are the most important species in the ecosphere. On the basis of this problem, this paper seeks to demonstrate/investigate the role and potential of literature and particularly poetry in the process of contesting, negotiating and re-evaluating the natural environment and human ethical attitudes towards it. It further argues and portrays that poetic texts can inspire and could be employed for ecopedagogic purposes. This study is an analysis of some selected poems in Shadrach Abanasom’s <em>Forest of the Gods</em>. Some tenets of ecocriticism will be used to buttress our analyses.The paper concludes that Ambanasom’s collection of poems, <em>Forest of the Gods </em>is a valuable tool/weapon for environmental teaching and eco-discourse that has taken centre stage in contemporary literary criticism. The paper recommends that the planetary crisis calls for not only a serious concerted effort but also a radical paradigm shift in re-interrogating the sustainability of the global life world.</p> Adamu Pangmeshi Copyright (c) 2022 Adamu Pangmeshi 2022-03-05 2022-03-05 5 1 255 273 Urban Barriers and Resilient Responses to IDP Adaptation in the Buea Municipality, Cameroon <p>The Anglophone crisis in Cameroon that turned violent since 2017 has resulted in massive displacement of people within the crisis regions. Host families have been providing assistance to IDPs with resultant implications on household incomes, welfare and the urban environment. This paper intends to evaluate urban barriers and resilient responses to IDPs adaptation within the Buea municipality. The study employed both primary and secondary sources in the collection of data. Field observation and the use of 104 questionnaires aided the process of primary data collection from the sampled 130 host households using a multi-stage sampling technique. The questionnaires were coded and entered into SPSS Version 21. The data were exported to Microsoft Excel 2016 for analysis. The results were presented descriptively using tables and graphs to appraise the results. The results showed that 60% of the displaced population to safer zones was in the age group between 18 to 37 years. Findings further showed that 54% of the displaced persons were female. Again, 51% of the displaced were married. More so, 95% of the displaced were educated while 67% belongs to lower socio-economical class. Findings further revealed that middle and low income households host more IDPs than high income households. A majority (63.1%) of host families experienced a drop in their quality of life in order to assist the IDPs. Again, 38.1% of the hosts were dissatisfied hosting IDPs. The paper concludes that IDPs face numerous challenges with some being shortage of food supply, poor sanitation and health care, lack of security and rape abuses in the municipality. The study proposes the need for integrated and comprehensive developmental approach to the displaced persons in urban areas so that IDPs can economically and socially integrate themselves through capacity building.</p> Clarkson Mvo Wanie Emmanuel Oben Copyright (c) 2022 Clarkson Mvo Wanie, Emmanuel Oben 2022-03-05 2022-03-05 5 1 274 304